british British Royal Navy - Admiralty - RN HMS Hood [+1941]
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general
nationality british
purpose war
type battlecruiser
subtype/class Admiral class battlecruiser
propulsion steam turbine
date built 1916
is nickname yes
status
live live
details
weight (tons) 45200  disp (surf)
dimensions 262.3 x 31.7 x 10.1 m
material steel, armoured
engine 4 x steam turbine engines, 24 Yarrow boilers, 4 shafts, each with a 3-bladed propeller 4.6m diameter
armament 8 × 15" guns (4×2), 12 × 5.5" guns 12×1), 8 × 4" guns (4×2), 24 × 2 pdr. (3×8), 20 × 0.5"/12.7 mm mg (5×4), 4 × 21"/533 mm T.T., 1 aircraft
power 144000  s.h.p.
speed 24  knots
yard no. 460
about the loss
cause lost gunfire - shelled
other reasons explosion
date lost 24/05/1941  [dd/mm/yyyy]
casualties  max.1415rank: 64
about people
builder
John Brown & Co. Ltd., Clydebank (Scotland)
owner
British Royal Navy - Admiralty - RN, London
captain Captain Ralph Kerr
complement 1169~1418
about the wreck
status broken in several pieces
depth (m.) 3000 max. / -- min. (m)
orientation
position on seabed turtle
visibility very bad
sea bed mud
marine life good
protected yes
war grave yes
updates
entered by Allen Tony
entered 15/10/2007
last update Shortridge Ollie
last update 24/05/2014
 
  Position  
 
Lettens Jan01/01/2009
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  The Wreck today  
 

Allen Tony15/10/2007

The wreck of Hood was discovered in 3,000 metres of water in July 2001 by an expedition funded by UK-based Channel Four Television and ITN and led by shipwreck hunter David Mearns. In 2002, the site officially became a war grave by its designation the British government as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act. Hood's wreck lies on the seabed in pieces among two debris fields.

The eastern field includes the tiny amount of the stern which survived the magazine explosion as well as the surviving section of the bow and some smaller remains such as the screws. The 4 inch (102 mm) fire director lies in the western debris field. The heavily armoured conning tower is located by itself a distance from the main wreck. The amidships section, the most massive part of the w reck to survive the explosions, lies south of the eastern debris field in a large impact crater. The starboard side of the amidships section is missing down to the inner wall of the fuel tanks; this has been interpreted as indicating the path of the explosion through the starboard fuel tanks. It is further supposed that the small debris fields are the fragments from the after hull where the magazines and turrets were located, since that section of the hull was totally destroyed in the explosion.

The fact that the bow section separated just forward of A turret provoked the suggestion that a secondary explosion might have occurred in this area; however, the forensic assessment by Jurens has dismissed this theory. The forward section remains upright on the seabed, with the amidship section keel up. Of interest is the stern section which actually rises from the seabed at an angle. This position clearly shows the rudder locked into a port turn, confirming that orders had been given (just prior to the aft magazines detonating) to change the ship's heading and bring the aft turrets 'X' and 'Y' to bear on the German ships.

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  History  
 
Lettens Jan24/05/2009HMS HOOD

British Navy, battle cruiser; Built in 1919 by John Brown & Co.; 42,100 tons; 860.6x105.2x31.5 ft.; 144,000 s.h.p.; 31 knots; turbine engines; Yarrow boilers; eight 15 in. guns, twelve 5.5 in., eight 4 in., 15 m.g., 4 T.T.;

Launched in 1918, she was the largest warship afloat, having a displacement of 42,100 tons. In May, 1941, Hood was the flagship of Vice-Admiral L. E. Holland, when accompanied by the Prince of Wales, engaged the Bismarck, Germany´s newly built battleship. Bismarck fired a salvo at extreme range (23,000 yards) and scored a hit upon the Hood. HMS Hood was struck in her magazines, for she blew up with a tremendous explosion and she disintegrated. Masts, funnels and other portions of her superstructure were hurled upwards. Of her crew of 1,341 only 3 were saved.

Upon receiving the shocking news, the Admiralty launched the hunt for the Bismarck, using all her powers to destroy the Bismarck, three days later.
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 Hocking C. et Al.
Allen Tony15/10/2007HMS Hood, a 42,100-ton Admiral Class battlecruiser built by John Brown & Cpy, Clydebank, Scotland, and was completed in March 1920. For more than two decades, she was the World´s largest warship and, with her long, low hull and finely balanced silhouette, was to many the embodiment of "big-gun" era seapower. For ten years after 1925, Hood was assigned to the Royal Navy´s Home and Atlantic Fleets, operating primarily around Europe, with a visit to the West Indies in 1932.

She served with the Mediterranean Fleet in 1936-39, protecting British interests during the Spanish Civil War. Back with the Home Fleet after mid-1939, Hood operated in the North Atlantic and North Sea through the first part of World War II and received minor damage in a German air attack on 26 September 1939, an event t hat demonstrated the relative ineffectiveness of contemporary anti-aircraft gunfire. In June and July 1940, the battlecruiser was in the Mediterranean area. She was flagship during the 3 July Mers-el-Kebir battle, the most dramatic and destructive of several incidents in which the British Navy seized, interned, destroyed or attempted to destroy the warships of their recent ally, France. These actswere undertaken on Government orders to allay fears that the French Navy might fall into German hands....

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 US Naval Historical Center


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About Owners
 
British Royal Navy - Admiralty - RN, London

In 1509 when Henry VIII was crowned he realised the growing navel power of King James IV of Scots. James had built an impressive fleet to control the Western Isles and was allied to France. Henry built up of his own fleet, the Navy Royal, as it was then known. New ships were constructed, the best known being the Mary Rose. Smaller types of warships (galleases) combining the best features of oars, sails and guns were also built. By Henry's death in 1547 his fleet had grown to 58 vessels.

In 1546 a 'Council of the Marine' was established which later became the 'Navy Board'. The Navy Board was in charge of the daily administration of the navy until 1832 when it was combined with the Board of the Admiralty.

Elizabeth I inherited a fleet of only 27 ships in 1558. Instead of building up her own fleet Elizabeth encouraged private enterprise against Spain's new empire. Men like Sir John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake to command groups of Royal and private ships to attack the Spanish. When Spain threatened invasion with its Armada in 1588 the Navy of England both Royal and private defended the realm.

Early in the Seventeenth Century, larger galleons were built with heavier armaments. the largest English ship was Sovereign of the Seas built for prestige purposes by Charles I in 1637. The first ship with three gun decks to carry her 102 guns, she was the most powerful ship in the world for many years.

When King Charles II came to the throne in 1660 he inherited a huge fleet of 154 ships. This was a permanent professional national force and the beginning of the Royal Navy as we know it today.

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About Builders
 John Brown & Co. Ltd., Clydebank (Scotland)
One of the largest naval shipbuilders in the UK, John Brown produced both battleships and cruisers in quantity for the Royal Navy and approved foreign clients (Chile, Japan). Brown's was also noted for ocean liners of the largest size and speed, including the LUSITANIA, AQUITANIA, QUEEN MARY, and both QUEEN ELIZABETHs for the Cunard Line. The company had its own steelworks in Sheffield and shipyard in Clydebank, a city actually named for its shipyard, near Dalmuir on the Clyde. At peak workforce before WWI the works directly employed over 10,000 men. In the midst of this prewar arms race and prosperity in 1907, the company issued a commemorative volume on the completion of the LUSITANIA. Not content to tout the ship herself, the company produced an impressive brag piece for the yard -- our source for many of the photos here reproduced. Notable warships built at the yard included the Japanese battleship ASAHI, the British battleships HINDUSTAN, AFRICA, and VALIANT (QE class), and the battlecruisers TIGER, REPULSE, INDEFATIGABLE, and HOOD. In 1971 Browns was sold to Marathon Oil. The shipyard remained in service to the North Sea oil industry before being closed by a successor company; the site was demolished in 2002. It is now the site of Clydebank Community College; a few of the original buildings and the giant Titan crane remain in the midst of a bulldozed wasteland. The engineering arm of John Brown continues (after several bouts of acquisition) as John Brown Engineering Gas Turbines Ltd, E. Kilbride, UK.

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  History  
 
Allen Tony15/10/2007HMS Hood, a 42,100-ton Admiral Class battlecruiser built by John Brown & Cpy, Clydebank, Scotland, and was completed in March 1920. For more than two decades, she was the World´s largest warship and, with her long, low hull and finely balanced silhouette, was to many the embodiment of "big-gun" era seapower. For ten years after 1925, Hood was assigned to the Royal Navy´s Home and Atlantic Fleets, operating primarily around Europe, with a visit to the West Indies in 1932.

She served with the Mediterranean Fleet in 1936-39, protecting British interests during the Spanish Civil War. Back with the Home Fleet after mid-1939, Hood operated in the North Atlantic and North Sea through the first part of World War II and received minor damage in a German air attack on 26 September 1939, an event t hat demonstrated the relative ineffectiveness of contemporary anti-aircraft gunfire. In June and July 1940, the battlecruiser was in the Mediterranean area. She was flagship during the 3 July Mers-el-Kebir battle, the most dramatic and destructive of several incidents in which the British Navy seized, interned, destroyed or attempted to destroy the warships of their recent ally, France. These actswere undertaken on Government orders to allay fears that the French Navy might fall into German hands.

Hood spent the remainder of her service operating from Scapa Flow, covering the North Sea and Atlantic from the threat of German surface raiders. She was now elderly, overloaded, and burdened with an inadequate armoring arrangement. However, her great operational value had acted through the 1930s to prevent the Royal Navy from taking her out of service for a badly-needed modernization, and now it was too late. In May 1941, in company with the new battleship Prince of Wales, she was sent out to search for the German battleship Bismarck, which had left Norway for the Atlantic. On the morning of 24 May, the two British capital ships found the enemy to the west of Iceland. In the resulting Battle of the Denmark Strait, one or more of Bismarck´s fifteen-inch shells got into Hood´s after magazines.

They erupted in a massive explosion. The great ship sank in moments with all but three of her large crew, an event that shocked the Royal Navy, the British nation and the entire World. HMS Hood´s remains were located and photographed by a British deep sea expedition in July 2001.
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 US Naval Historical Center
 
 
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